Sources, Annotated

Primary Sources (printed, digitized, and otherwise):

Archives of Maryland, Edward C. Paperfuse State Archives Building, Annapolis, Maryland. 

            Ledger of Commissioners for Emitting Bills of Credit, vol. 1767-1779 (manuscript accounting); MSA No. S752.

            Archives online for Land Records, especially images of pre-1800 manuscript surveys and records of land warrants issued. 

Archives of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 

            Land Records including images online of pre-1800 manuscript surveys as well as chronological registers of land warrants issued. 

Bedford County, Pennsylvania, 1786-1791 Tax Duplicates, images of manuscript found on Brethren Archives, Ministers & Congregations site Thanks to A. Wayne Webb and Gale E. S. Honeyman for posting these documents. 

Daughters of the American Revolution (National Society), Library, Manuscript Collection 277 (Genealogical Archives of Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh, M.D.—National Genealogical Society editor, 1917-1942), photographic copy of manuscript Minutes of the Committee of Observation of Hagerstown, Maryland, 1775-1777, Washington D.C.

Drinker, Elizabeth Sandwith, Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, Elaine Forman Crane, ed., (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991) 3 volumes. Drinker mentioned thousands of names in her fifty years of diary writing, and when she mentioned “Jacob Brombaugh” for a visit Jacob, Jr. paid to her husband, Quaker merchant Henry Drinker, she added that he had breakfasted with HD on that August 23, 1803, to pay him some money (vol. 3: 1677). 

Drinker, Henry (1734-1809), Henry Drinker Papers 1756-1869; Henry Drinker Business Collection #176, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Duplicate [Tax Roll] for the Residentors in Woodberry township for the Year 1786, photocopy of manuscript (Bedford Springs, Pa.: Pioneer Library of Bedford County Historical Society, unknown date).

Eddis, William, Letters from America, Aubrey C. Land, ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 1969). 

Edwards, Morgan, “Materials Towards a History of the American Baptists” (Edwards, 1770), (viewed Aug. 2014). 

Faris, William, The Diary of William Faris, The Daily Life of an Annapolis Silversmith, Mark B. Letzer and Jean B. Russo, eds. (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 2003). A wonderful accomplishment, creating a history of personalities on many levels of Maryland society in old Annapolis from this modest diary of an observant craftsman, father, friend, active citizen. It contains many beautiful surprises. 

Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., vol. VIII 1777 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907). 

Juniata College, Beeghly Library, Archives: Manuscript Collection #1, Archives of Martin G. Brumbaugh; Manuscript Collection #2, Archives of Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh, M.D.; Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. Collection #2 contains much primary source material submitted by Brumbaugh descendants in connection with publication by G.M.B. of the 1913 family genealogy. 

Lancaster County Committee of Observation, Broadside dated July 11, 1775, imprint of John Bailey, King’s-Street, Lancaster. Lititz Moravian Museum and Church, Lititz, PA. 

Lowry, Jean, A Journal of the Captivity of Jean Lowry and her Children, Giving an Account of her being taken by the Indians, the 1st of April 1756, from William McCord’s, in Rocky-Spring Settlement in Pennsylvania, With an Account of the hardships she suffered, & c. (Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1760; reprint of the original text Mercersburg, Pa.: Conococheague Institute & Museum, 2008).

Mack, Alexander, Jr., The Day Book/Account Book of Alexander Mack, Jr. (1712-1803), Weaver, Brethren Elder, Apologist, and Chronicler in Early America, transcription and translation by Edward E. Quitner, annotated by Donald F. Durnbaugh (Kutztown, Pa.: The Pennsylvania German Society, 2004). A remarkable resource concerning Brethren in the eighteenth century both in the city and in rural areas, written by a sensitive and thoughtful minister with much good wisdom to impart. 

Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee of Observation of Elizabeth Town [Hagers town, Washington County] for 1775, 1776, 1777 in the Maryland Historical Magazine (Baltimore, Md.: Maryland Historical Society, 1917-1918) volume 12 (1917), 142-163; 261-275; and 324-347; and volume 13 (1918), 28-53; and 227-248. Photographic copy of manuscript Minutes of the Committee of Observation of Elizabeth Town [Hagerstown, Washington County], Maryland, 1775-1777, in archives of Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh, M.D., Library of National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), Washington D.C.

Mittelberger, Gottlieb, Gottlieb Mittelberger’s Journey to Pennsylvania in the year 1750 and Return to Germany in the year 1754, Containing not only a Description of the Country According to its Present Condition . . . ., Carl Theo. Eben, trans. (Philadelphia: John Jos. McVey, 1898).

Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania:

            Ettwein Papers; Revolutionary War Documents

            Website of the Bethlehem Digital History Project,

Register of Wills of Washington County, Maryland:

            Wills, administrators’ accounts in Hagerstown office.

            Estate papers before 1800 in Archives of Maryland, Hall of Records, Annapolis.

Return for different species of Grains Purchased by Henry Schnebley in Washington county, by order of an Act of assembly, April 16, 1780; Maryland State Papers, Red books, vol. 23, location: 01/06/04/022 MdHR#4590: MSA: S989-34.

Revolutionary War Military Collection, Manuscript MS.576 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, Manuscript Division). The treason trial in Frederick town, Frederick County, Md., 1781. 

Western Maryland Historical Library, online at online collections:

            Tax Assessment for Washington County, Maryland, 1783

            Tax Assessment for Washington County, Maryland, 1803-04,

            Washington County, Maryland, Land Patents 1730-1830

            Washington County Maryland, Court Dockets 1779-1793,

            Sheriff Nathaniel Rochester’s Records, Washington County, 1804-06         

            Slavery in western Maryland.

This resource is invaluable for 18th c.-Washington County research and it is a great credit to the library that it publishes this online in a very accessible format. 

Brown, Helen W., ed., “Marriages and Deaths 1830-1837 Recorded in The Republican Banner;” typescript, compiled 1962 (Hagerstown, Maryland: Washington County Historical Society, 1962).

Weiser, Frederick J., trans. and ed., Maryland German Church Records, vols. I-XVIII.

Coldham, Peter William, ed., Settlers of Maryland, 1751-1765 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1998).

Strassburger, Ralph Beaver, and William J. Hincke, eds., Pennsylvania German Pioneers (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania German Society, 1934).

Pennsylvania’s Civil War Conscientious Objectors Database found online at the public portion of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania website: http//

Proceedings of the Maryland Convention, 1775 to October 1777.

Revolutionary War Military Collection, Manuscript MS.1146 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, Manuscript Division).

Wahll, Andrew J., ed. and compiler, Braddock Road Chronicles 1755 (Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, Inc., 1999).

Secondary Sources:

Adams, Willi Paul, “The Colonial German-language Press and the American Revolution,” in The Press & the American Revolution, Bernard Bailyn and John B. Hench, eds. (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1981), 151-225. 

Africa, J. Simpson, History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883). 

Anderson, Fred, A People’s Army, Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years War (1984).

_______, George Washington Remembers: Reflections on the French and Indian War (New York: Rowan and Littlefield, 2004).

_______, The War that Made America (New York: Penguin Group, 2005). 

An Index to Hager’s-town Newspapers, Jan. 1820-Dec. 1824 (Hagerstown, Md.: Washington County Free Library.

Ankrum, Freeman, Sidelights on Brethren History (Elgin, Ill.: Brethren Press, 1962).

Arnold, Joseph and Anirban Basu, Maryland: Old Line to New Prosperity (Sun Valley, Ca.: American Historical Press, 2003).

            David Skaggs, The Roots of Maryland Democracy; Ronald Hoffman, A Spirit of            Dissension; and U.S. Census Bureau, historical statistics of the U.S.

Bach, Jeff, Voices of the Turtledoves, The Sacred World of Ephrata  (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004). A wonderful resource for feeling the eccentricities of this community of Brethren outliers of outliers. 

Bailey, Chris H., compiler, The Stulls of “Millsborough,” A Genealogical History of John Stull, “The Miller,’ Pioneer of Western Maryland (compiler, 2000), 2 volumes.

Beiler, Rosalind J., Immigrant and Entrepreneur- The Atlantic World of Caspar Wistar, 1650-1750 (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008). Beautifully researched and constructed. 

Bell, Herbert C., History of Leitersburg District, Washington County, Maryland (Leitersburg, Md.: author, 1898). This is a marvelously well researched little volume which is very useful for people tracing their ancestors from this region, which is northeast of Hagerstown and immediately to the east of Jacob Brumbaugh’s property. 

Besse, Joseph, A COLLECTION of the SUFFERINGS Of the PEOPLE called QUAKERS for the Testimony of a Good Conscience, from the TIME of their being first distinguished by that NAME in the Year 1650, to the TIME of the Act, commonly called the Act of Toleration, granted Protestant Dissenters in the first Year of the Reign of King William the Third and Queen Mary, in the Year 1689 (London: Luke Hinde, 1753), 2 volumes; found online at The Quaker equivalent of the Martyrs’ Mirror.

Bittinger, Emmert F., Allegheny Passage, Churches and Families, West Marva District Church of the Brethren(Camden, Me.: Penobscot Press, 1990).

_____, “The Maryland Brethren During the Revolutionary War: Interpretations and Clarifications, Mennonite Family History, January 1997 (Lancaster: Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society, 1997).

Bodle, Wayne, The Valley Forge Winter, Civilians and Soldiers in War (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002; paperback edition, 2004). 

Breen, T. H., Tobacco Culture: The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of the Revolution (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985).

_____, American Insurgents, American Patriots—The Revolution of the People (New York: Hill & Wang, 2010).

Brethren Genealogy List, archives: . Join the list for guidance by some very long experienced and generous Brethren genealogists and researchers all over the country. 

Bricker, Calvin, Jr. and Dr. Walter L. Powell, Conflict on the Conococheague, 1755-1758 Terror in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and Maryland (Mercersburg, Pa.: Conococheague Institute & Museum, 2009).

Browne, William Hand, ed., Journal and correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety July 7-December 31, 1776,Archives of Maryland, vol. XII (Baltimore: 1893).

Brugger, Robert J., Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988; Merrick edition). 

BrumbaughGaius Marcus, Genealogy of the Brumbach Families Including Those Using the Following Variations of the Original Name, Brumbaugh, Brumbach, Brumback, Brombaugh and Brownback and Many Other Connected Families (New York: Frederick Hitchcock, 1913). The book is a magnificent work for its comprehensiveness and for all the primary source documents reproduced photographically and transcribed for inclusion. Dr. Brumbaugh (1862-1952), a direct descendant of Jacob’s brother, Johannes Henrich Brumbaugh, was a medical doctor and genealogist who became editor-in-chief in 1917 of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, serving in that position for twenty-five years while also publishing some books of his own. He was also a devoted lay leader of the Church of the Brethren and a long time board member of his alma mater, Juniata College, one of seven Brethren colleges. 

_____, ed., Maryland Records: Colonial, Revolutionary, Court and Church from Original Sources (Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., reprint, 1975), 2 volumes.

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, A History of the German Baptist Brethren in Europe and America (Mount Morris, Ill.: Brethren Publishing House, 1899). This Dr. Brumbaugh (1862-1930) was a direct descendant of Jacob’s brother, Johannes Henrich Brumbaugh. Dr. Brumbaugh was the first Brethren to earn a Ph.D. (1894- University of Pennsylvania), a leading educator nationally of his time, a leading historian of the Church of the Brethren at that time as well, the first professor of pedagogy at the University of Pennsylvania, president of Juniata College (two terms, the first beginning when he was 32), a Brethren lay preacher, the Superintendent of Schools of Philadelphia (1906-1915), and, though an avowed pacifist, the proud “war governor” (elected as a Republican) of Pennsylvania (1915-1919). 

_______, Acceptance Address, Upon Presentation of the Memorial Arch by the United States to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Valley Forge, June 19, 1917, (Harrisburg: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1917) (Delaware State Archives). 

_______,  “The Church in the Homeland,” chapter One of Three Centuries of The Church of the Brethren or the Beginnings of the Brethren, Bicentennial Addresses at the Annual Conference Held at Des Moines, Iowa, June 3, -11, 1908 (Elgin, Ill.: Brethren Publishing House, 1908). 

Burdge, Edsel, Jr. and Samuel L. Horst, Building on the Gospel Foundation, The Mennonites of Franklin County, Pennsylvania and Washington County, Maryland (Scottdale Pa.: Herald Press, 2004).

Christopher Saur (variant spellings Sauer, Sower), website curated by John Byer, A very helpful site for a quick view of the impressive Saur legacy and some images of Saur objects. 

Clemens, S. Eugene, and F. Edward Wright, eds., The Maryland Militia in the Revolutionary War (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1987)

Cooper, H. Austin, Two Centuries of Brothersvalley Church of the Brethren 1762-1962An account of the Old Colonial Church, the Stony Creek German Baptist Church and the area of Brudersthal [Somerset County, Pa., contiguous to Bedford County on the west] in which the Brethren settled in the summer of 1762, and organized by George Adam Martin, presiding Elder (Somerset, Pa.: Cooper, 1962). 

______, A Pleasant View, Pleasant View Church of the Brethren, Burkittsville, Maryland (Baltimore, Md.: Pleasant View Church of the Brethren, 1998). Rev. Cooper, who was minister of this church, elaborated on the Johann Jacob Brumbaugh Braddock Campaign story here late in his life, but provided no primary sources. 

Crackel, Theodore J., “Revolutionary War Pension Records and Patterns of American Mobility, 1780–1830”
in Prologue Magazine of the National Archives and Record Administration, vol. 16, no. 3 (Fall 1998), found online (1/2012).

Dalzell, Robert F., Jr., and Lee Baldwin Dalzell, George Washington’s Mount Vernon: At Home in Early America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). 

Davey, H. D., and J. Quintner, eds., Minutes of the Annual Meetings of the Brethren (Dayton, Ohio: Christian Publishing Association, 1876).

Davis, Vernon A., Early Hagerstown as Seen by John Gruber (Hagerstown: Venture Enterprises, 1976).

Dreisdach, Daniel L. and Mark David Hall, eds., The Sacred Rights of Conscience, Selected Writings on Religious Liberty and Church-State Relations in the American Founding (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2009).

Drinker, Henry S., “History of the Drinker Family,” typescript (1961) (Historical Society of Pennsylvania). 

Durnbaugh, Donald F., ed., The Brethren in Colonial America (Elgin, Il.: The Brethren Press, 1967). 

____, “Was Christopher Sauer a Dunker?,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 93 (1969), 383-391.

____, ed., The Brethren Encyclopedia (Philadelphia, Pa.: The Brethren Encyclopedia, Inc., 1983), vol. 1.

____, The Donald F. Durnbaugh Archive, The Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania.

Eby, Lela, The History of the Church of The Brethren in the Middle District of Pennsylvania (1924). 

Eshleman, H. Frank, Historic Background and annals of the Swiss and German Pioneer Settlers of Southeastern Pennsylvania, and of their Remote Ancestors, From the Middle of the Dark Ages, Down to the Time of the Revolutionary War (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1917, reprint, 1982). 

Fischer, David Hackett, Washington’s Crossing (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Fogleman, Aaron Spencer, Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775 (Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996).

Fox, Francis S., Sweet Land of Liberty, The Ordeal of the American Revolution in Northampton County, Pennsylvania(University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). An independent researcher’s quirky but excellent collection of essays on the American Revolution in this backcountry county with numerous sectarians. 

Fuller, Marsha Lynn, ed., Naturalizations of Washington County, Maryland Prior to 1880 (Hagerstown, Md.: Desert Sheik Press, 1997). 

Gerzina, Gretchen Holdbrook, Mr. and Mrs. Prince: How an Extraordinary Eighteenth-Century Family Moved Out of Slavery and Into Legend (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008). Inspirational research and close analysis. 

Gillis, John, The Affirmation for Quakers, Menonist [sic] and Dunkers, MSS, Red Book, vol. 19, folio 83, Archives of Maryland, Annapolis.

Gilpin, Thomas, Jr., Exiles in Virginia: With Observations on the Conduct of the Society of Friends during the Revolutionary War, comprising the Official Papers of the Government Relating to that Period, 1777-1778(Philadelphia: Thomas Gilpin, 1848).

Gould, Clarence P., The Land System In Maryland, 1720-1765 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1913).

Grivno, Max, Gleanings of Freedom- Free and Slave labor along the Mason-Dixon Line, 1790-1860 (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2011).

Gutheim, Frederick, The Potomac (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1949).

Hartle, Richard Lee, “Descendants of Johann Jacob Brumbaugh,” typescript (Hagerstown, Md.: Washington County Free Library, 1999). 

_______, “Descendants of Heinrich Angle (Engel),” typescript (Hagerstown, Md.: Washington County Free Library, 1999). 

Henry, J. Maurice, History of the Church of the Brethren in Maryland (Elgin, Ill.: Brethren Press; 1936).

Hess, Clarke, Mennonite Arts (Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer Publishing Co. Ltd., 2002). 

History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties, Pennsylvania (Chicago: Waterman, Watkins & Co., 1884).

Hoecker, Edward W., The Sower Printing House of Colonial Times (Norristown, Pa.: The Pennsylvania German Society, 1948), 1-125. 

Hofstadter, Richard, America at 1750: A Social Portrait  (New York: Vintage Books Edition; Feb. 1973; Random House, Inc., 1971).

Hooker, Edward W., Genealogical Data Relating to the German Settlers of Pennsylvania and Adjacent Territory from Advertisements in German Newspapers Published in Philadelphia and Germantown, 1743-1800 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1981). A real find for those who cannot read the German newspapers of that era. 

Houpt, James W., Jr., In His Own Words: The Diary of James McCullough, 1722-1781, One Man’s Chronicle of Colonial History (Mercersburg, Pa.: James W. Houpt, Jr., 2013). Images and editorial comment on a surviving manuscript diary by a Scotch-Irish farmer and linen weaver residing in the Pennsylvania portion of the Conococheague district between 1753 and 1758.

Hunter, Brooke, “The Prospect of Independent Americans: The Grain Trade and Economic Development During the 1780s” in Explorations in Early American Culture, vol. 5 (2001) (University Park, Pa.: Historical Association for the McNeil Center for Early American Studies, 2001). 

Jones, U. J., History of the Early Settlement of the Juniata Valley (Harrisburg, Pa.: The Telegraph Press, 1940). 

Kaylor, Earl C., Jr., Out of the Wilderness, 1780-1980, The Brethren and Two Centuries of Life in Central Pennsylvania(New York: Cornwall Books, 1981). 

_____, Martin Grove Brumbaugh, A Pennsylvanian’s Odyssey From Sainted Schoolman to Bedeviled World War I Governor, 1862-1930 (Cranbury, N.J.: A Juniata College Publication at Fairleigh Dickenson University, 1996).

Kessel, Elizabeth Augusta, “Germans on the Maryland Frontier: A Social History of Frederick County, Maryland, 1730-1800,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (Rice University, 1981). Based on case studies of many immigrants and government records, the author of this valuable resource refers to “the subtle balance between cultural persistence and accommodation these settlers achieved” by the end of the eighteenth century.

Knauss, James O., “Social conditions Among the Pennsylvania Germans in the Eighteenth Century, as Revealed in the German Newspapers Published in America” in Pennsylvania — The German Influence in its Settlement and Development (Lancaster: The Pennsylvania- German Society, 1922). 

_____, “Christopher Saur The Third” (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1931). This is an incisive article on the prominence of the Saur family dynasty of German printers in Germantown. 

Kraybill, Mary Jean, Gerald R. Brunk, and James O. Lehman, “A Guide to Select Revolutionary War Records pertaining to the Mennonites and other Pacifist Groups in Southeastern Pennsylvania and Maryland 1775-1800” (typescript) (Harrisonburg, Va.: Eastern Mennonite College, 1974).

Kurtz, Elder Henry, ed., The Brethren Encyclopedia, containing The United Counsels and Conclusions of the Brethren, at their Annual Meetings carefully collected, translated (from the original German in part) and arranged in alphabetical and chronological order, accompanied with Necessary and Explanatory Notes, &c. (Columbiana, Oh.: editor, 1867).

Lehman, Daniel R., Mennonites of the Washington County, Maryland and Franklin County, Pennsylvania Conference(Lancaster: The Publication Board of the Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church and Related Areas, 1990).

Lehman, James O. “The Mennonites of Maryland During the Revolutionary War,” The Mennonite Quarterly Review, vol. 50 (July 1976), 200-229. 

Lemon, James T., The Best Poor Man’s Country, A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972). A classic study of immense value. 

Long, Henry Lawrence, “The Big Long Family In America, 1736-1979, Descendants of John Long, 1728-1791, of Bakers Lookout, Washington County, Maryland” (Mount Morris, Ill.: Henry L. Long, 1961). 

Main, Jackson Turner, The Social Structure of Revolutionary America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965).

Mann, Bruce H., Republic of Debtors, Bankruptcy in the Age of American Independence (Cambridge, Mass.: The Harvard University Press, 2002).

Manning, Barbara, ed., Genealogical Abstracts from Newspapers of the German Reformed Church 1830-1839(Baltimore: Heritage Books, Inc., 1992).

_____, ed., Genealogical Abstracts from Newspapers of the German Reformed Church 1840-1845 (Baltimore: Heritage Books, Inc., 1995).

Maryland Historical Magazine (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1900 to present). 

Meacham, Sarah Hand, Every Home a Distillery: Alcohol, Gender, and Technology in the Colonial Chesapeake(Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009). 

Mekeel, Arthur J., The Quakers During the American Revolution (York, England: Sessions Trust, 1996). 

Messer, Peter C., “‘A Species of Treason & Not the Least Dangerous Kind’: The Treason Trials of Abraham Carlisle and John Roberts,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 123, no. 4 (Oct. 1999), 303-333. 

Miller, Mrs. Warren, and Mrs. S. L. Greenawalt, eds., Records of St. John’s Evangelical Lutheran Church, Hagerstown, MD (1966, indexed), vol. 1 (The John Clinton Frye Room, Washington County Free Library, Hagerstown, Maryland).

Morrow, Dale W., ed., Washington County, Maryland, Cemetery Records (Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, 2009), vol. 6.

Nelson, John H., “‘What God Does Is Well Done,’ The Jonathan Hager Files” (Hagerstown, Md.: City of Hagerstown, 1997).

Christian Newcomer, The Life and Journal of the Rev’d Christian Newcomer, Bishop of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, John HIldt, transc. and trans. (Hagerstown, Md.: F.G.W. Kapp, 1834). 

Ousterhout, Anne M., A State Divided, The Opposition in Pennsylvania to the American Revolution, 1775-1783 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1987). A fascinatingly detailed narrative of the politics in Pennsylvania, mostly Philadelphia, which concentrates much more on the Whigs, Tories and the Quakers, and contains relatively little, if any, on the specifics on the other pacifists.

Overfield, Richard A., “A Patriot Dilemma: The Treatment of Passive Loyalists and Neutrals in Revolutionary Maryland,” Maryland Historical Magazine, vol. 63 (summer 1973). 

Palmer, John G., “The Palmer Papers” (Papers of Surveyor and Genealogist, John G. Palmer (1867-1956)), Conococheague Institute & Museum, Rock Hill Farm, Mercersburg, Pa.

Pastorius, Francis Daniel, “Pastorius’ Essay on Taxes,” Henry J. Cadbury, ed., Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 58, no. 3 (1934), 255-259. 

Peden, Henry C., Jr., ed., Revolutionary Soldiers of Washington County, Maryland (Baltimore: Family Line Publications, 1998). 

Pinkett, Harold T., “Maryland As a Source of Food Supplies During the American Revolution,” Maryland Historical Magazine, vol. 46, No. 3 (Sept. 1951) p. 157 et seq.

Ridenour, C. William, compiler, Marsha L. Fuller, CGRS, ed.; Washington County Maryland Obituary Locator, 1790-1943 (Westminster, Md.: Willow Bend Books, 2001).

Roeber, A.G., Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993). 

Russell, George Ely, Washington County, Maryland Genealogical Research Guide (Catoctin Press, 1993).

Ruth, John L., ‘Twas Seeding Time, A Mennonite View of the American Revolution (Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1976). This is a marvelous book for inhaling the Mennonite view of this seminal series of events. This book cites no sources in its text, but nevertheless has a good bibliography. And one can feel the texture of the emotions of the plain folk of that time. 

Sachse, Julian Friedrich, The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1708-1800: A Critical and Legendary History of the Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: Sachse, 1899-1900; reprinted by AMS Press, New York, 1971).

Saladino, Gaspare John, “The Maryland and Virginia Wheat Trade From Its Beginnings to the American Revolution,” unpublished master’s thesis (University of Wisconsin, 1960).

Scott, Kenneth, and Janet R. Clarke, eds., Abstracts from the Pennsylvania Gazette 1768-1755 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.; 1977). 

Scharf, J. Thomas, History of Western Maryland (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. reprint, 1995), 2 vols.

Schooley, Patricia, Architectural and Historic Treasures of Washington County, Maryland (Hagerstown: Washington County Historical Society, 2004). 

Steinmetz, Rollin C., Loyalists, Pacifists and Prisoners (Lancaster, Pa.: Lancaster County Historical Society, 1976). Lamentably, this book contains no references to original sources.

Stievermann, Jan, “A ‘plain, rejected little flock’: The Politics of Martyrological Self-Fashioning among Pennsylvania’s German Peace Churches, 1739-1765,” William & Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, vol. 66 (2009), 287-234.

____, “Defining the Limits of American Liberty: Pennsylvania Peace Churches During the Revolution,” in Jan Stievermann and Oliver Scheiding, eds., A Peculiar Mixture, German-Language Cultures and Identities in Eighteenth-Century North America (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013). 

Stoner, E. W., compiler, History of the Pipe Creek Church, Maryland (Hagerstown, Md.: compiler, 1906) (Durnbaugh Collection, Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, Pa.; Box A, Folio 25).

Stotz, Charles Morse, Outposts of the War for Empire—The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania: Their Armies, Their Forts, Their People, 1749-1764 (Pittsburgh: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 1985).

Tappert, Theodore C. and John W. Doberstein, eds., The Notebook of a Colonial Clergyman: Condensed from the Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (Philadelphia: Fortress Press: 1959; first paperback edition, 1975).

The Committee Appointed by the District Conference, History of the Church of the Brethren of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Lancaster: The New Era Printing Co., 1915).

Vining, Elizabeth Gray, The Virginia Exiles (New York: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1955). The novel written about the exile to Virginia of 20 men, mostly Quakers, from Philadelphia in 1777-1778. 

Wellenreuther, Hermann, ed., The Revolution of the People, Thoughts and Documents on the Revolutionary Process in North America 1774-1776 (Göttingen, Germany: Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2006). Wellenreuther, a German scholar, is a careful and engaging interpreter of these 18th century German immigrants.

Western Maryland Genealogy, vol. 7. 

Whisker, James B., Bedford County Archives (Apollo, Pa.: Closson Press, 1986), vol. 3.

Williams, Thomas J. C., History of Frederick County (Baltimore: Runk & Titsworth, 1906) vol. 1.

____, A History of Washington County, Maryland (Baltimore: Runk and Titsworth, 1906).

Wright, F. Edward, Western Maryland Newspaper Abstracts 1786-1798 (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1985).

____, Western Maryland Newspaper Abstracts, vol. 2, 1799-1805 (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1986).

_____, ed., Washington County Church Records of the 18th Century 1768-1800 (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1988).

Weaver, William Woys, trans. and ed., Sauer’s Herbal Cures, America’s First Book of Botanic Healing (New York: Routeledge, 2012). 

Wroth, Lawrence C. A History of Printing in Colonial Maryland, 1686-1776. (Mansfield Center, Conn.: Martino Pub., 2009). 

Young, Alfred F., The Shoemaker and the Tea Party, Memory and the American Revolution (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999). A remarkable work and the source of much positive inspiration to the present author to recreate as fully as possible the life of an eighteenth-century person of modest means, who was not a celebrity, but who was present and accounted for in connection with historic events or dealings with personages of greater notoriety. 

Research was conducted at the following institutions (Aug. 2010- Aug. 2014):

Archives of Maryland, Hall of Records, Annapolis, MD

Bedford County Historical Society, Pioneer Library, Bedford, PA

Blair County Historical Society, Hollidaysburg, PA

Braddock Monument, National Road, Uniontown, PA

Brumbaugh-Kendle-Grove Farmstead, family cemetery enclosed with iron railing, north of Hagerstown, MD, in the cornfield alongside route 11

Bucks County Historical Society, Spruance Library, Mercer Museum, Doylestown, PA

C&O Canal National Park in Williamsport, MD

Cecil County Library, North East, MD

Conococheague Institute & Museum, Mercersburg, PA

Carroll County Historical Society, Westminster, MD

Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, PA

Courthouse, Washington County, Hagerstown, MD

David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA

Delaware Pubic Archives, Dover, DE

Dr. Don Yoder Library, Devon, PA

Elizabethtown College, Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown,   PA

Ephrata Cloister, Ephrata, PA

Frederick County Historical Society, Frederick, Maryland

Free Library of Philadelphia, Rare Book Dept., Philadelphia, PA

Ft. Frederick, Big Pool, MD

German Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 

Germantown Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA

Haverford College, Megill Library, Special Collections, Haverford, PA

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

James A. Lowry, Mennonite Library, Hagerstown, MD

Jonathan Hager House and Museum, Hagerstown, MD

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Williamsburg, VA

Juniata College, Beeghley Library, Archives, Huntingdon, PA

Lancaster County Mennonite Museum and Library, Lancaster, PA

Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Lititz Moravian Museum and Church, Lititz, PA

Lutheran Theological Seminary, Krauth Memorial Library, Philadelphia, PA

Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD

Mennonite Historical Library, James and Mattie Lowry, Hagerstown, MD

Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, PA

Morrison’s Cove, Bedford County, PA:

            Brumbaugh cemetery (Blair County, but Bedford before 1846)

            Brumbaugh Mountain

            Brumbaugh road

            Frankstown township

            Martinsburg Library, Martinsburg 

            New Enterprise 

            Roaring Spring, Blair County 

National Archives and Records Administration, Philadelphia, PA

National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, Washington, D.C.

New York Public Library, New York, NY

Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, PA

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Library, Perelman Building, Philadelphia’

Register of Wills of Washington County, Hagerstown, Maryland 

Schifferstadt Architectural Museum, Frederick, MD

South Mountain, Washington County, MD

Schwenkfelder Library and Museum, Pennsburg, PA

Swarthmore College, McCabe Library & Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore, PA

The Library Company, Philadelphia, PA

U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center (Library), Carlisle, PA

Washington County Historical Society, Hagerstown, MD

Western Maryland Room, Washington County Free Library, Hagerstown, MD

Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, Winchester, VA

Websites Visited by Correspondence

Brethren Heritage Center, Brookville, OH.

Brethren Historical Library and Archive, Elgin, IL.

Courthouse, Huntingdon County, PA

Courthouse, Franklin County, PA

Franklin County Historical Society Kittochtinny, Chambersburg, PA.

Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, MD.

National Society, Sons of the American Revolution, archives online

Western Maryland Regional Library, Hagerstown, MD.

Huntingdon County Historical Society, Huntingdon, PA.

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