Bibliography

Sources, Annotated

Primary Sources (printed, digitized, and otherwise):

Archives of Maryland, Edward C. Paperfuse State Archives Building, Annapolis, Maryland. 

            Ledger of Commissioners for Emitting Bills of Credit, vol. 1767-1779 (manuscript accounting); MSA No. S752.

            Archives online for Land Records, especially images of pre-1800 manuscript surveys and records of land warrants issued. 

Archives of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 

            Land Records including images online of pre-1800 manuscript surveys as well as chronological registers of land warrants issued. 

Bedford County, Pennsylvania, 1786-1791 Tax Duplicates, images of manuscript found on Brethren Archives, Ministers & Congregations site http://mincon.brethrenarchives.com. Thanks to A. Wayne Webb and Gale E. S. Honeyman for posting these documents. 

Daughters of the American Revolution (National Society), Library, Manuscript Collection 277 (Genealogical Archives of Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh, M.D.—National Genealogical Society editor, 1917-1942), photographic copy of manuscript Minutes of the Committee of Observation of Hagerstown, Maryland, 1775-1777, Washington D.C.

Drinker, Elizabeth Sandwith, Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, Elaine Forman Crane, ed., (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991) 3 volumes. Drinker mentioned thousands of names in her fifty years of diary writing, and when she mentioned “Jacob Brombaugh” for a visit Jacob, Jr. paid to her husband, Quaker merchant Henry Drinker, she added that he had breakfasted with HD on that August 23, 1803, to pay him some money (vol. 3: 1677). 

Drinker, Henry (1734-1809), Henry Drinker Papers 1756-1869; Henry Drinker Business Collection #176, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Duplicate [Tax Roll] for the Residentors in Woodberry township for the Year 1786, photocopy of manuscript (Bedford Springs, Pa.: Pioneer Library of Bedford County Historical Society, unknown date).

Eddis, William, Letters from America, Aubrey C. Land, ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press, 1969). 

Edwards, Morgan, “Materials Towards a History of the American Baptists” (Edwards, 1770), http://archive.org/stream/materials00edwa#page/64/mode/2up (viewed Aug. 2014). 

Faris, William, The Diary of William Faris, The Daily Life of an Annapolis Silversmith, Mark B. Letzer and Jean B. Russo, eds. (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 2003). A wonderful accomplishment, creating a history of personalities on many levels of Maryland society in old Annapolis from this modest diary of an observant craftsman, father, friend, active citizen. It contains many beautiful surprises. 

Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, Worthington Chauncey Ford, ed., vol. VIII 1777 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907). 

Juniata College, Beeghly Library, Archives: Manuscript Collection #1, Archives of Martin G. Brumbaugh; Manuscript Collection #2, Archives of Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh, M.D.; Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. Collection #2 contains much primary source material submitted by Brumbaugh descendants in connection with publication by G.M.B. of the 1913 family genealogy. 

Lancaster County Committee of Observation, Broadside dated July 11, 1775, imprint of John Bailey, King’s-Street, Lancaster. Lititz Moravian Museum and Church, Lititz, PA. 

Lowry, Jean, A Journal of the Captivity of Jean Lowry and her Children, Giving an Account of her being taken by the Indians, the 1st of April 1756, from William McCord’s, in Rocky-Spring Settlement in Pennsylvania, With an Account of the hardships she suffered, & c. (Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1760; reprint of the original text Mercersburg, Pa.: Conococheague Institute & Museum, 2008).

Mack, Alexander, Jr., The Day Book/Account Book of Alexander Mack, Jr. (1712-1803), Weaver, Brethren Elder, Apologist, and Chronicler in Early America, transcription and translation by Edward E. Quitner, annotated by Donald F. Durnbaugh (Kutztown, Pa.: The Pennsylvania German Society, 2004). A remarkable resource concerning Brethren in the eighteenth century both in the city and in rural areas, written by a sensitive and thoughtful minister with much good wisdom to impart. 

Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee of Observation of Elizabeth Town [Hagers town, Washington County] for 1775, 1776, 1777 in the Maryland Historical Magazine (Baltimore, Md.: Maryland Historical Society, 1917-1918) volume 12 (1917), 142-163; 261-275; and 324-347; and volume 13 (1918), 28-53; and 227-248. Photographic copy of manuscript Minutes of the Committee of Observation of Elizabeth Town [Hagerstown, Washington County], Maryland, 1775-1777, in archives of Gaius Marcus Brumbaugh, M.D., Library of National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), Washington D.C.

Mittelberger, Gottlieb, Gottlieb Mittelberger’s Journey to Pennsylvania in the year 1750 and Return to Germany in the year 1754, Containing not only a Description of the Country According to its Present Condition . . . ., Carl Theo. Eben, trans. (Philadelphia: John Jos. McVey, 1898).

Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania:

            Ettwein Papers; Revolutionary War Documents

            Website of the Bethlehem Digital History Project,    http://bdhp.moravian.edu/about/about.html

Register of Wills of Washington County, Maryland:

            Wills, administrators’ accounts in Hagerstown office.

            Estate papers before 1800 in Archives of Maryland, Hall of Records, Annapolis.

Return for different species of Grains Purchased by Henry Schnebley in Washington county, by order of an Act of assembly, April 16, 1780; Maryland State Papers, Red books, vol. 23, location: 01/06/04/022 MdHR#4590: MSA: S989-34.

Revolutionary War Military Collection, Manuscript MS.576 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, Manuscript Division). The treason trial in Frederick town, Frederick County, Md., 1781. 

Western Maryland Historical Library, online at www.whilbr.org.: online collections:

            Tax Assessment for Washington County, Maryland, 1783

            Tax Assessment for Washington County, Maryland, 1803-04,

            Washington County, Maryland, Land Patents 1730-1830

            Washington County Maryland, Court Dockets 1779-1793,

            Sheriff Nathaniel Rochester’s Records, Washington County, 1804-06         

            Slavery in western Maryland.

This resource is invaluable for 18th c.-Washington County research and it is a great credit to the library that it publishes this online in a very accessible format. 

Brown, Helen W., ed., “Marriages and Deaths 1830-1837 Recorded in The Republican Banner;” typescript, compiled 1962 (Hagerstown, Maryland: Washington County Historical Society, 1962).

Weiser, Frederick J., trans. and ed., Maryland German Church Records, vols. I-XVIII.

Coldham, Peter William, ed., Settlers of Maryland, 1751-1765 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1998).

Strassburger, Ralph Beaver, and William J. Hincke, eds., Pennsylvania German Pioneers (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania German Society, 1934).

Pennsylvania’s Civil War Conscientious Objectors Database found online at the public portion of the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania website: http//:gsp.org.

Proceedings of the Maryland Convention, 1775 to October 1777.

Revolutionary War Military Collection, Manuscript MS.1146 (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, Manuscript Division).

Wahll, Andrew J., ed. and compiler, Braddock Road Chronicles 1755 (Bowie, Md.: Heritage Books, Inc., 1999).

Secondary Sources:

Adams, Willi Paul, “The Colonial German-language Press and the American Revolution,” in The Press & the American Revolution, Bernard Bailyn and John B. Hench, eds. (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1981), 151-225. 

Africa, J. Simpson, History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883). 

Anderson, Fred, A People’s Army, Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years War (1984).

_______, George Washington Remembers: Reflections on the French and Indian War (New York: Rowan and Littlefield, 2004).

_______, The War that Made America (New York: Penguin Group, 2005). 

An Index to Hager’s-town Newspapers, Jan. 1820-Dec. 1824 (Hagerstown, Md.: Washington County Free Library.

Ankrum, Freeman, Sidelights on Brethren History (Elgin, Ill.: Brethren Press, 1962).

Arnold, Joseph and Anirban Basu, Maryland: Old Line to New Prosperity (Sun Valley, Ca.: American Historical Press, 2003).

            David Skaggs, The Roots of Maryland Democracy; Ronald Hoffman, A Spirit of            Dissension; and U.S. Census Bureau, historical statistics of the U.S.

Bach, Jeff, Voices of the Turtledoves, The Sacred World of Ephrata  (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004). A wonderful resource for feeling the eccentricities of this community of Brethren outliers of outliers. 

Bailey, Chris H., compiler, The Stulls of “Millsborough,” A Genealogical History of John Stull, “The Miller,’ Pioneer of Western Maryland (compiler, 2000), 2 volumes.

Beiler, Rosalind J., Immigrant and Entrepreneur- The Atlantic World of Caspar Wistar, 1650-1750 (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2008). Beautifully researched and constructed. 

Bell, Herbert C., History of Leitersburg District, Washington County, Maryland (Leitersburg, Md.: author, 1898). This is a marvelously well researched little volume which is very useful for people tracing their ancestors from this region, which is northeast of Hagerstown and immediately to the east of Jacob Brumbaugh’s property. 

Besse, Joseph, A COLLECTION of the SUFFERINGS Of the PEOPLE called QUAKERS for the Testimony of a Good Conscience, from the TIME of their being first distinguished by that NAME in the Year 1650, to the TIME of the Act, commonly called the Act of Toleration, granted Protestant Dissenters in the first Year of the Reign of King William the Third and Queen Mary, in the Year 1689 (London: Luke Hinde, 1753), 2 volumes; found online at https://archive.org/stream/collectionofsuff01bess#page/n3/mode/2up). The Quaker equivalent of the Martyrs’ Mirror.

Bittinger, Emmert F., Allegheny Passage, Churches and Families, West Marva District Church of the Brethren(Camden, Me.: Penobscot Press, 1990).

_____, “The Maryland Brethren During the Revolutionary War: Interpretations and Clarifications, Mennonite Family History, January 1997 (Lancaster: Lancaster Mennonite Historical Society, 1997).

Bodle, Wayne, The Valley Forge Winter, Civilians and Soldiers in War (University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002; paperback edition, 2004). 

Breen, T. H., Tobacco Culture: The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of the Revolution (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985).

_____, American Insurgents, American Patriots—The Revolution of the People (New York: Hill & Wang, 2010).

Brethren Genealogy List, archives: http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/index?list=brethren . Join the list for guidance by some very long experienced and generous Brethren genealogists and researchers all over the country. 

Bricker, Calvin, Jr. and Dr. Walter L. Powell, Conflict on the Conococheague, 1755-1758 Terror in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and Maryland (Mercersburg, Pa.: Conococheague Institute & Museum, 2009).

Browne, William Hand, ed., Journal and correspondence of the Maryland Council of Safety July 7-December 31, 1776,Archives of Maryland, vol. XII (Baltimore: 1893).

Brugger, Robert J., Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634-1980 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988; Merrick edition). 

BrumbaughGaius Marcus, Genealogy of the Brumbach Families Including Those Using the Following Variations of the Original Name, Brumbaugh, Brumbach, Brumback, Brombaugh and Brownback and Many Other Connected Families (New York: Frederick Hitchcock, 1913). The book is a magnificent work for its comprehensiveness and for all the primary source documents reproduced photographically and transcribed for inclusion. Dr. Brumbaugh (1862-1952), a direct descendant of Jacob’s brother, Johannes Henrich Brumbaugh, was a medical doctor and genealogist who became editor-in-chief in 1917 of the National Genealogical Society Quarterly, serving in that position for twenty-five years while also publishing some books of his own. He was also a devoted lay leader of the Church of the Brethren and a long time board member of his alma mater, Juniata College, one of seven Brethren colleges. 

_____, ed., Maryland Records: Colonial, Revolutionary, Court and Church from Original Sources (Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., reprint, 1975), 2 volumes.

Brumbaugh, Martin Grove, A History of the German Baptist Brethren in Europe and America (Mount Morris, Ill.: Brethren Publishing House, 1899). This Dr. Brumbaugh (1862-1930) was a direct descendant of Jacob’s brother, Johannes Henrich Brumbaugh. Dr. Brumbaugh was the first Brethren to earn a Ph.D. (1894- University of Pennsylvania), a leading educator nationally of his time, a leading historian of the Church of the Brethren at that time as well, the first professor of pedagogy at the University of Pennsylvania, president of Juniata College (two terms, the first beginning when he was 32), a Brethren lay preacher, the Superintendent of Schools of Philadelphia (1906-1915), and, though an avowed pacifist, the proud “war governor” (elected as a Republican) of Pennsylvania (1915-1919). 

_______, Acceptance Address, Upon Presentation of the Memorial Arch by the United States to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Valley Forge, June 19, 1917, (Harrisburg: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 1917) (Delaware State Archives). 

_______,  “The Church in the Homeland,” chapter One of Three Centuries of The Church of the Brethren or the Beginnings of the Brethren, Bicentennial Addresses at the Annual Conference Held at Des Moines, Iowa, June 3, -11, 1908 (Elgin, Ill.: Brethren Publishing House, 1908). 

Burdge, Edsel, Jr. and Samuel L. Horst, Building on the Gospel Foundation, The Mennonites of Franklin County, Pennsylvania and Washington County, Maryland (Scottdale Pa.: Herald Press, 2004).

Christopher Saur (variant spellings Sauer, Sower), website curated by John Byer, http://www.johnbryer.com/saur.htm. A very helpful site for a quick view of the impressive Saur legacy and some images of Saur objects. 

Clemens, S. Eugene, and F. Edward Wright, eds., The Maryland Militia in the Revolutionary War (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1987)

Cooper, H. Austin, Two Centuries of Brothersvalley Church of the Brethren 1762-1962An account of the Old Colonial Church, the Stony Creek German Baptist Church and the area of Brudersthal [Somerset County, Pa., contiguous to Bedford County on the west] in which the Brethren settled in the summer of 1762, and organized by George Adam Martin, presiding Elder (Somerset, Pa.: Cooper, 1962). 

______, A Pleasant View, Pleasant View Church of the Brethren, Burkittsville, Maryland (Baltimore, Md.: Pleasant View Church of the Brethren, 1998). Rev. Cooper, who was minister of this church, elaborated on the Johann Jacob Brumbaugh Braddock Campaign story here late in his life, but provided no primary sources. 

Crackel, Theodore J., “Revolutionary War Pension Records and Patterns of American Mobility, 1780–1830”
in Prologue Magazine of the National Archives and Record Administration, vol. 16, no. 3 (Fall 1998), found online (1/2012).

Dalzell, Robert F., Jr., and Lee Baldwin Dalzell, George Washington’s Mount Vernon: At Home in Early America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). 

Davey, H. D., and J. Quintner, eds., Minutes of the Annual Meetings of the Brethren (Dayton, Ohio: Christian Publishing Association, 1876).

Davis, Vernon A., Early Hagerstown as Seen by John Gruber (Hagerstown: Venture Enterprises, 1976).

Dreisdach, Daniel L. and Mark David Hall, eds., The Sacred Rights of Conscience, Selected Writings on Religious Liberty and Church-State Relations in the American Founding (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2009).

Drinker, Henry S., “History of the Drinker Family,” typescript (1961) (Historical Society of Pennsylvania). 

Durnbaugh, Donald F., ed., The Brethren in Colonial America (Elgin, Il.: The Brethren Press, 1967). 

____, “Was Christopher Sauer a Dunker?,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 93 (1969), 383-391.

____, ed., The Brethren Encyclopedia (Philadelphia, Pa.: The Brethren Encyclopedia, Inc., 1983), vol. 1.

____, The Donald F. Durnbaugh Archive, The Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania.

Eby, Lela, The History of the Church of The Brethren in the Middle District of Pennsylvania (1924). 

Eshleman, H. Frank, Historic Background and annals of the Swiss and German Pioneer Settlers of Southeastern Pennsylvania, and of their Remote Ancestors, From the Middle of the Dark Ages, Down to the Time of the Revolutionary War (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1917, reprint, 1982). 

Fischer, David Hackett, Washington’s Crossing (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

Fogleman, Aaron Spencer, Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775 (Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996).

Fox, Francis S., Sweet Land of Liberty, The Ordeal of the American Revolution in Northampton County, Pennsylvania(University Park, Pa.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000). An independent researcher’s quirky but excellent collection of essays on the American Revolution in this backcountry county with numerous sectarians. 

Fuller, Marsha Lynn, ed., Naturalizations of Washington County, Maryland Prior to 1880 (Hagerstown, Md.: Desert Sheik Press, 1997). 

Gerzina, Gretchen Holdbrook, Mr. and Mrs. Prince: How an Extraordinary Eighteenth-Century Family Moved Out of Slavery and Into Legend (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008). Inspirational research and close analysis. 

Gillis, John, The Affirmation for Quakers, Menonist [sic] and Dunkers, MSS, Red Book, vol. 19, folio 83, Archives of Maryland, Annapolis.

Gilpin, Thomas, Jr., Exiles in Virginia: With Observations on the Conduct of the Society of Friends during the Revolutionary War, comprising the Official Papers of the Government Relating to that Period, 1777-1778(Philadelphia: Thomas Gilpin, 1848).

Gould, Clarence P., The Land System In Maryland, 1720-1765 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1913).

Grivno, Max, Gleanings of Freedom- Free and Slave labor along the Mason-Dixon Line, 1790-1860 (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2011).

Gutheim, Frederick, The Potomac (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1949).

Hartle, Richard Lee, “Descendants of Johann Jacob Brumbaugh,” typescript (Hagerstown, Md.: Washington County Free Library, 1999). 

_______, “Descendants of Heinrich Angle (Engel),” typescript (Hagerstown, Md.: Washington County Free Library, 1999). 

Henry, J. Maurice, History of the Church of the Brethren in Maryland (Elgin, Ill.: Brethren Press; 1936).

Hess, Clarke, Mennonite Arts (Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer Publishing Co. Ltd., 2002). 

History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties, Pennsylvania (Chicago: Waterman, Watkins & Co., 1884).

Hoecker, Edward W., The Sower Printing House of Colonial Times (Norristown, Pa.: The Pennsylvania German Society, 1948), 1-125. 

Hofstadter, Richard, America at 1750: A Social Portrait  (New York: Vintage Books Edition; Feb. 1973; Random House, Inc., 1971).

Hooker, Edward W., Genealogical Data Relating to the German Settlers of Pennsylvania and Adjacent Territory from Advertisements in German Newspapers Published in Philadelphia and Germantown, 1743-1800 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1981). A real find for those who cannot read the German newspapers of that era. 

Houpt, James W., Jr., In His Own Words: The Diary of James McCullough, 1722-1781, One Man’s Chronicle of Colonial History (Mercersburg, Pa.: James W. Houpt, Jr., 2013). Images and editorial comment on a surviving manuscript diary by a Scotch-Irish farmer and linen weaver residing in the Pennsylvania portion of the Conococheague district between 1753 and 1758.

Hunter, Brooke, “The Prospect of Independent Americans: The Grain Trade and Economic Development During the 1780s” in Explorations in Early American Culture, vol. 5 (2001) (University Park, Pa.: Historical Association for the McNeil Center for Early American Studies, 2001). 

Jones, U. J., History of the Early Settlement of the Juniata Valley (Harrisburg, Pa.: The Telegraph Press, 1940). 

Kaylor, Earl C., Jr., Out of the Wilderness, 1780-1980, The Brethren and Two Centuries of Life in Central Pennsylvania(New York: Cornwall Books, 1981). 

_____, Martin Grove Brumbaugh, A Pennsylvanian’s Odyssey From Sainted Schoolman to Bedeviled World War I Governor, 1862-1930 (Cranbury, N.J.: A Juniata College Publication at Fairleigh Dickenson University, 1996).

Kessel, Elizabeth Augusta, “Germans on the Maryland Frontier: A Social History of Frederick County, Maryland, 1730-1800,” unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (Rice University, 1981). Based on case studies of many immigrants and government records, the author of this valuable resource refers to “the subtle balance between cultural persistence and accommodation these settlers achieved” by the end of the eighteenth century.

Knauss, James O., “Social conditions Among the Pennsylvania Germans in the Eighteenth Century, as Revealed in the German Newspapers Published in America” in Pennsylvania — The German Influence in its Settlement and Development (Lancaster: The Pennsylvania- German Society, 1922). 

_____, “Christopher Saur The Third” (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1931). This is an incisive article on the prominence of the Saur family dynasty of German printers in Germantown. 

Kraybill, Mary Jean, Gerald R. Brunk, and James O. Lehman, “A Guide to Select Revolutionary War Records pertaining to the Mennonites and other Pacifist Groups in Southeastern Pennsylvania and Maryland 1775-1800” (typescript) (Harrisonburg, Va.: Eastern Mennonite College, 1974).

Kurtz, Elder Henry, ed., The Brethren Encyclopedia, containing The United Counsels and Conclusions of the Brethren, at their Annual Meetings carefully collected, translated (from the original German in part) and arranged in alphabetical and chronological order, accompanied with Necessary and Explanatory Notes, &c. (Columbiana, Oh.: editor, 1867).

Lehman, Daniel R., Mennonites of the Washington County, Maryland and Franklin County, Pennsylvania Conference(Lancaster: The Publication Board of the Eastern Pennsylvania Mennonite Church and Related Areas, 1990).

Lehman, James O. “The Mennonites of Maryland During the Revolutionary War,” The Mennonite Quarterly Review, vol. 50 (July 1976), 200-229. 

Lemon, James T., The Best Poor Man’s Country, A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972). A classic study of immense value. 

Long, Henry Lawrence, “The Big Long Family In America, 1736-1979, Descendants of John Long, 1728-1791, of Bakers Lookout, Washington County, Maryland” (Mount Morris, Ill.: Henry L. Long, 1961). 

Main, Jackson Turner, The Social Structure of Revolutionary America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965).

Mann, Bruce H., Republic of Debtors, Bankruptcy in the Age of American Independence (Cambridge, Mass.: The Harvard University Press, 2002).

Manning, Barbara, ed., Genealogical Abstracts from Newspapers of the German Reformed Church 1830-1839(Baltimore: Heritage Books, Inc., 1992).

_____, ed., Genealogical Abstracts from Newspapers of the German Reformed Church 1840-1845 (Baltimore: Heritage Books, Inc., 1995).

Maryland Historical Magazine (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1900 to present). 

Meacham, Sarah Hand, Every Home a Distillery: Alcohol, Gender, and Technology in the Colonial Chesapeake(Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009). 

Mekeel, Arthur J., The Quakers During the American Revolution (York, England: Sessions Trust, 1996). 

Messer, Peter C., “‘A Species of Treason & Not the Least Dangerous Kind’: The Treason Trials of Abraham Carlisle and John Roberts,” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 123, no. 4 (Oct. 1999), 303-333. 

Miller, Mrs. Warren, and Mrs. S. L. Greenawalt, eds., Records of St. John’s Evangelical Lutheran Church, Hagerstown, MD (1966, indexed), vol. 1 (The John Clinton Frye Room, Washington County Free Library, Hagerstown, Maryland).

Morrow, Dale W., ed., Washington County, Maryland, Cemetery Records (Westminster, Md.: Heritage Books, 2009), vol. 6.

Nelson, John H., “‘What God Does Is Well Done,’ The Jonathan Hager Files” (Hagerstown, Md.: City of Hagerstown, 1997).

Christian Newcomer, The Life and Journal of the Rev’d Christian Newcomer, Bishop of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, John HIldt, transc. and trans. (Hagerstown, Md.: F.G.W. Kapp, 1834). 

Ousterhout, Anne M., A State Divided, The Opposition in Pennsylvania to the American Revolution, 1775-1783 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1987). A fascinatingly detailed narrative of the politics in Pennsylvania, mostly Philadelphia, which concentrates much more on the Whigs, Tories and the Quakers, and contains relatively little, if any, on the specifics on the other pacifists.

Overfield, Richard A., “A Patriot Dilemma: The Treatment of Passive Loyalists and Neutrals in Revolutionary Maryland,” Maryland Historical Magazine, vol. 63 (summer 1973). 

Palmer, John G., “The Palmer Papers” (Papers of Surveyor and Genealogist, John G. Palmer (1867-1956)), Conococheague Institute & Museum, Rock Hill Farm, Mercersburg, Pa.

Pastorius, Francis Daniel, “Pastorius’ Essay on Taxes,” Henry J. Cadbury, ed., Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 58, no. 3 (1934), 255-259. 

Peden, Henry C., Jr., ed., Revolutionary Soldiers of Washington County, Maryland (Baltimore: Family Line Publications, 1998). 

Pinkett, Harold T., “Maryland As a Source of Food Supplies During the American Revolution,” Maryland Historical Magazine, vol. 46, No. 3 (Sept. 1951) p. 157 et seq.

Ridenour, C. William, compiler, Marsha L. Fuller, CGRS, ed.; Washington County Maryland Obituary Locator, 1790-1943 (Westminster, Md.: Willow Bend Books, 2001).

Roeber, A.G., Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993). 

Russell, George Ely, Washington County, Maryland Genealogical Research Guide (Catoctin Press, 1993).

Ruth, John L., ‘Twas Seeding Time, A Mennonite View of the American Revolution (Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1976). This is a marvelous book for inhaling the Mennonite view of this seminal series of events. This book cites no sources in its text, but nevertheless has a good bibliography. And one can feel the texture of the emotions of the plain folk of that time. 

Sachse, Julian Friedrich, The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania, 1708-1800: A Critical and Legendary History of the Ephrata Cloister and the Dunkers, 2 vols. (Philadelphia: Sachse, 1899-1900; reprinted by AMS Press, New York, 1971).

Saladino, Gaspare John, “The Maryland and Virginia Wheat Trade From Its Beginnings to the American Revolution,” unpublished master’s thesis (University of Wisconsin, 1960).

Scott, Kenneth, and Janet R. Clarke, eds., Abstracts from the Pennsylvania Gazette 1768-1755 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.; 1977). 

Scharf, J. Thomas, History of Western Maryland (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co. reprint, 1995), 2 vols.

Schooley, Patricia, Architectural and Historic Treasures of Washington County, Maryland (Hagerstown: Washington County Historical Society, 2004). 

Steinmetz, Rollin C., Loyalists, Pacifists and Prisoners (Lancaster, Pa.: Lancaster County Historical Society, 1976). Lamentably, this book contains no references to original sources.

Stievermann, Jan, “A ‘plain, rejected little flock’: The Politics of Martyrological Self-Fashioning among Pennsylvania’s German Peace Churches, 1739-1765,” William & Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, vol. 66 (2009), 287-234.

____, “Defining the Limits of American Liberty: Pennsylvania Peace Churches During the Revolution,” in Jan Stievermann and Oliver Scheiding, eds., A Peculiar Mixture, German-Language Cultures and Identities in Eighteenth-Century North America (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013). 

Stoner, E. W., compiler, History of the Pipe Creek Church, Maryland (Hagerstown, Md.: compiler, 1906) (Durnbaugh Collection, Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown College, Elizabethtown, Pa.; Box A, Folio 25).

Stotz, Charles Morse, Outposts of the War for Empire—The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania: Their Armies, Their Forts, Their People, 1749-1764 (Pittsburgh: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 1985).

Tappert, Theodore C. and John W. Doberstein, eds., The Notebook of a Colonial Clergyman: Condensed from the Journals of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (Philadelphia: Fortress Press: 1959; first paperback edition, 1975).

The Committee Appointed by the District Conference, History of the Church of the Brethren of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Lancaster: The New Era Printing Co., 1915).

Vining, Elizabeth Gray, The Virginia Exiles (New York: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1955). The novel written about the exile to Virginia of 20 men, mostly Quakers, from Philadelphia in 1777-1778. 

Wellenreuther, Hermann, ed., The Revolution of the People, Thoughts and Documents on the Revolutionary Process in North America 1774-1776 (Göttingen, Germany: Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2006). Wellenreuther, a German scholar, is a careful and engaging interpreter of these 18th century German immigrants.

Western Maryland Genealogy, vol. 7. 

Whisker, James B., Bedford County Archives (Apollo, Pa.: Closson Press, 1986), vol. 3.

Williams, Thomas J. C., History of Frederick County (Baltimore: Runk & Titsworth, 1906) vol. 1.

____, A History of Washington County, Maryland (Baltimore: Runk and Titsworth, 1906).

Wright, F. Edward, Western Maryland Newspaper Abstracts 1786-1798 (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1985).

____, Western Maryland Newspaper Abstracts, vol. 2, 1799-1805 (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1986).

_____, ed., Washington County Church Records of the 18th Century 1768-1800 (Silver Spring, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1988).

Weaver, William Woys, trans. and ed., Sauer’s Herbal Cures, America’s First Book of Botanic Healing (New York: Routeledge, 2012). 

Wroth, Lawrence C. A History of Printing in Colonial Maryland, 1686-1776. (Mansfield Center, Conn.: Martino Pub., 2009). 

Young, Alfred F., The Shoemaker and the Tea Party, Memory and the American Revolution (Boston: Beacon Press, 1999). A remarkable work and the source of much positive inspiration to the present author to recreate as fully as possible the life of an eighteenth-century person of modest means, who was not a celebrity, but who was present and accounted for in connection with historic events or dealings with personages of greater notoriety. 

Research was conducted at the following institutions (Aug. 2010- Aug. 2014):

Archives of Maryland, Hall of Records, Annapolis, MD

Bedford County Historical Society, Pioneer Library, Bedford, PA

Blair County Historical Society, Hollidaysburg, PA

Braddock Monument, National Road, Uniontown, PA

Brumbaugh-Kendle-Grove Farmstead, family cemetery enclosed with iron railing, north of Hagerstown, MD, in the cornfield alongside route 11

Bucks County Historical Society, Spruance Library, Mercer Museum, Doylestown, PA

C&O Canal National Park in Williamsport, MD

Cecil County Library, North East, MD

Conococheague Institute & Museum, Mercersburg, PA

Carroll County Historical Society, Westminster, MD

Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, PA

Courthouse, Washington County, Hagerstown, MD

David Library of the American Revolution, Washington Crossing, PA

Delaware Pubic Archives, Dover, DE

Dr. Don Yoder Library, Devon, PA

Elizabethtown College, Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown,   PA

Ephrata Cloister, Ephrata, PA

Frederick County Historical Society, Frederick, Maryland

Free Library of Philadelphia, Rare Book Dept., Philadelphia, PA

Ft. Frederick, Big Pool, MD

German Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 

Germantown Historical Society, Philadelphia, PA

Haverford College, Megill Library, Special Collections, Haverford, PA

Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

James A. Lowry, Mennonite Library, Hagerstown, MD

Jonathan Hager House and Museum, Hagerstown, MD

John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library, Williamsburg, VA

Juniata College, Beeghley Library, Archives, Huntingdon, PA

Lancaster County Mennonite Museum and Library, Lancaster, PA

Library of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, PA

Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Lititz Moravian Museum and Church, Lititz, PA

Lutheran Theological Seminary, Krauth Memorial Library, Philadelphia, PA

Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD

Mennonite Historical Library, James and Mattie Lowry, Hagerstown, MD

Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, PA

Morrison’s Cove, Bedford County, PA:

            Brumbaugh cemetery (Blair County, but Bedford before 1846)

            Brumbaugh Mountain

            Brumbaugh road

            Frankstown township

            Martinsburg Library, Martinsburg 

            New Enterprise 

            Roaring Spring, Blair County 

National Archives and Records Administration, Philadelphia, PA

National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, Washington, D.C.

New York Public Library, New York, NY

Pennsylvania State Archives, Harrisburg, PA

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Library, Perelman Building, Philadelphia’

Register of Wills of Washington County, Hagerstown, Maryland 

Schifferstadt Architectural Museum, Frederick, MD

South Mountain, Washington County, MD

Schwenkfelder Library and Museum, Pennsburg, PA

Swarthmore College, McCabe Library & Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore, PA

The Library Company, Philadelphia, PA

U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center (Library), Carlisle, PA

Washington County Historical Society, Hagerstown, MD

Western Maryland Room, Washington County Free Library, Hagerstown, MD

Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, Winchester, VA

Websites Visited by Correspondence

Brethren Heritage Center, Brookville, OH.

Brethren Historical Library and Archive, Elgin, IL.

Courthouse, Huntingdon County, PA

Courthouse, Franklin County, PA

Franklin County Historical Society Kittochtinny, Chambersburg, PA.

Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, MD.

National Society, Sons of the American Revolution, archives online

Western Maryland Regional Library, Hagerstown, MD.

Huntingdon County Historical Society, Huntingdon, PA.

The Jacob Brumbaugh Correspondence with Philadelphia Quaker, Mega-Landowner Henry Drinker (1734-1809)

 

The Jacob Brumbaugh-Henry Drinker Correspondence (1797-1799)

When examining most of Jacob’s long life, one must rely for the most part on official government records. There is, however, a cache of correspondence from Jacob and his eldest son Jacob, Jr. to the Quaker merchant prince Henry Drinker between the years 1797 and 1803, with some interesting connections also found in Drinker’s 1785 correspondence with others. 

Henry Drinker was one of the wealthiest and most well connected Philadelphia merchants. He was a leader in Quaker Meeting circles as clerk of the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, as a member of the Meeting for Sufferings, as a trustee of the Westtown School, and as a Quaker martyr, having notoriously been exiled for nearly eight months during the British occupation of Philadelphia which began on September 26, 1777.[1] Despite his notorious exile, Drinker continued after the occupation to be a key connector— he was on the board of the elitist American Philosophical Society, a treasurer of various Quaker committees and an elected member of the town council in 1790. He also became one of the leading land tract speculators, and even survived the bursting of that speculative bubble. 

By the time of their correspondence, both men had aged—Jacob was 71 and Henry, 63. They were two hundred miles apart, but still found ways to bicker over contract details in their correspondence. At this time, Henry found himself beset by financial troubles, but still had a firm hand on the tiller of commerce, while Jacob was optimistic, energetic, and ingratiating even if forgetful, and struggling to keep himself on top of the deal.

The correspondence was certainly not on its face personal or intimate in any way even though Drinker calls his correspondent “Friend.”[2] It was the Quaker custom, even to the point, one might suppose, of disarming a business correspondent. How so? In common parlance the word implies that there is a special relationship of trust between the parties. With someone on the other side of a purely business deal, however, one should probably never infer that trust existed without some previous, clear and positive action indicating true friendship.

Partly, too, reviewing the correspondence can give one an insight into both Quaker modalities of speech as well as the difficult task of negotiating by mail. These letters also demonstrate how big city merchants used a network of agents in the country to carry out their business. Most importantly, it gives one a window into the personality and behavior of Jacob Brumbaugh, as well as Henry Drinker. 

These letters focused on the Brumbaughs’ purchase of two land tracts from Drinker, located in Bedford County. Jacob had already paid for one, called Corunna (381 acres), but Drinker had not yet conveyed it to him because Jacob had not instructed him how precisely he wanted Drinker to do so at that time. Jacob also purchased Dorfans Barn (475 acres), on which he made a partial payment of £338 in 1797. He still owed a £988 balance at the time of Jacob’s death in April 1799. 

Jacob’s first letter in 1797 to Henry Drinker discussed his payment of £338..90..0 to Drinker’s local agent John Canan. This statement illustrated that Drinker stood to make money in this deal. He added, “my son Jacob is concerned with me in the purchase as well.” He declared that he and Jacob, Jr. “wish to have articles of agreement with you for the purchase of said land.” He claimed the land had been formerly sold or leased to John Stouder. Commenting on the lease, he wrote, “I understand [the lease] is to continue for nine years which I did not know when I purchased.” One thus sees in this statement the lack of information he and other land purchasers dealt with as they tried to make deals. Launching into a complaint about the lessee Stouder, he argued:

I hope Stouder can be restrained from destroying the timber unnecessarily and confined to clear land where there is least timber. I am told his Brother is here who is a wagon maker [who] destroys a great deal [presumably of timber to make wagons]. [3]  

Jacob then volunteered to bring the money himself to Philadelphia, if Drinker instructed Canan to return it. He added that when in Philadelphia, he would “settle the balance of the three spring tract,” as well as “the cost of the Caveat you entered for me.” Evidently, these two had conducted business before, including the transaction that occurred in 1785. He further added, “the rest of the payments for the Yellow Creek land shall be regularly remitted to you by Mr. Jas. Ferguson of the place who goes to Philadelphia four or five [times] a year.” The “three spring tract” was the tract called Corunna.[4]

Drinker replied to Brumbaugh in September to say that John Canan had not come to Philadelphia for the convening of the assembly. On November 7, Drinker wrote again, telling Jacob that he had heard from Canan, which allowed Drinker to ratify and confirm the written agreement Brumbaugh signed with Canan.. Brumbaugh, however, wrote back explaining that he had given Canan the money already, and had asked for a receipt, which Canan refused to give. Jacob intended to deposit some money on the property, then “settle the price and the rest of the payments with you, and all I wanted of him was a receipt.” Canan, however, instead gave Jacob an agreement to sign. Brumbaugh retorted, “if I coud not make the two first payments my money was to be returned” which was never, of course, a part of the written contract he had signed.[5]

Brumbaugh agreed to “confirm the bargain on the following terms”: he would pay Drinker £261..11..0 by next June, which together with the first payment, would make a total of £600. He then agreed to pay Drinker a second £600 payment in four yearly installments of £150 in November 1799, 1800, 1801, and1802.  He told Drinker that he had signed the agreement with Canan because Canan would not otherwise provide a receipt. So, having already signed an agreement for a £1327 purchase price, he countered with an offer of £1200, adding it “is double what was marked on the platt of the land and I hope you will think it enough for the land, should you agree to this proposition you may rely on punctuality in the payments.” He then wrote, “should the dispute not be settled with Fifes [another party] I shall expect Interest on the payments already made and to be made in the spring until possession is given me.”[6]

Henry Drinker then sent his next letter to Jacob on June 9, 1798, full of the measured tones of a systematic businessman: 

while I am favoured with life & health, it is my desire, & I think it ought to be thine, that the Deed for the Tract formerly sold thee in Morrisons’ Cove should be executed, which may be done as soon as thou informs how the conveyance is to be made, to whom, the Township & County &tc as requested in my last Letter & when Executed how it is to be conveyed to thee? 

He added that Fifes, the party with a claim to the property, gave up their claim and confessed judgment, so that the title to the land Jacob had bought from John Canan “is now clear of all incumbrance or debts…I therefore hope thou’ll speedily make the payments.”[7]

Two months later in August 1798, Jacob replied, “Honor’d Friend Sir, I hope to make you payment in and by sending you 100 Barrels of good Merchantable Flower [flour] well packed in [torn] Barrels and if you would rather have it sent around to Philadelphia it shall be Done at my proper Cost.” 

Jacob did not want to leave any contingencies uncovered, so he added, “if said flower is not sufficient I will make up the Deficiency in Either Apple Brandy or Rie Liquor to the same Merchant.” Again he focused on the timber destruction by the lessee, Mr. Stouder: 

“I hope you will write to Mr. Cannan to settle with said Stouder concerning the said land as he occupies it in every respect as if it were his own…What he has done is done but I will pay him for nothing but if after he gets notice what he does in good order is to be settled for but not for Clearing land for that he has nothing to do with nor is he to be settled for by any means. [Give] notice [to] said Stouder to refrain from selling and Destroying timbers in and on said premises and not Destroy and let the fruit Trees be Destroyed nor the fences or house or Barn be demolished.” 

Again Jacob threatened to unravel the deal:

if you cant comply to these my proposals …I am willing to take my money that I paid you with Simple Interest which I think is no more than Reason between Man and Man in behalf of the same as I found the land not to be what I bought [the letter is torn here]… [the] plow land to be Barny [barrens or rough land] and Pine Land [page torn]. I Conclude and remain your Wellwisher,  [8]

This letter contained strong, well–practiced, even modestly elegant, language. It is hard to determine, however, if this letter was written in Jacob’s hand. Jacob Jr. had help writing his letters, so his father may have also. This letter also  contains legal phrasings, meaning Jacob likely contacted a lawyer about the points he wished to make.  Jacob was a determined old man who tried to insert completely new terms at this juncture in the negotiations for payment of the purchase price to be delivered to Baltimore not in cash but in kind, viz., produce of Jacob’s farm such as “Merchantable Flower [sic- flour]” or “Apple Brandy or Rie.” Henry Drinker replied sternly to Jacob after three months. Again, in his measured tones, he chided Jacob: 

All thou says about 100 barrels of Merchantable Flour, Apple Brandy, and Rye liquor is nothing to the purpose…in short Friend all thy long Story about the Land bought of Canan, the quality of it with many other ridiculous circumstances are too childish and affronting to common sense, that they deserve not serious notice. After having entered into a written contract, paid part of the purchase price, & prevented a sale of the property to other purchasers, to come forward with a number of new conditions and terms is really extraordinary. 

Henry ended this firm rebuff to Jacob’s last attempt to renegotiate by calling attention to the payment dates and amounts, and warns that a resort to federal court might be his next move, closing with “thou art warned by thy Friend.”[9] This was strictly business, not the relation of friendship.[10]

One must wonder if Jacob declined in his energy and drive. Looking, however, at his multiple purchases at the age of 72 and his feisty correspondence, one sees a hustling, yet ingratiating old man determined to get a deal.  


[1] See Wendy Lucas Castro, “‘Being Separated form My Dearest Husband, in This Cruel Manner’: Elizabeth Drinker and the Seven-Month Exile of Philadelphia Quakers,” Quaker History, 100, (2011), 40-63. 

[2] This was one of the ways that Quakers set themselves apart from the world as all the peace sects also sought to do. Other ways the Quakers reminded themselves and others of their commitment to their strict religious principles were disciplines that included plain dress, plain talk, an emphasis on ethics, a numerical way of listing the date (3rd month, 2nd day, not March 2), affirmation rather than swearing, asceticism, and moderation in all things. See J. William Frost, The Quaker Family in Colonial America (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1973). 

[3] J.B, Jr. to H.D., 21 August 1797, Box 21, D.C., HSP

[4] Ibid. 

[5] H.D. to J.B., Jr., 7 November 1797, Box 21, D.C., HSP

[6] J.B, Jr. to H.D., 15 November 1797, Box 21, D.C., HSP.

[7] H.D. to J.B., Jr., 9 June 1798, Box 21, D.C., HSP.

[8] J.B. to H.D., 15 August 1798, Box 21, D.C, HSP

[9] The day Drinker wrote that warning letter, he himself warmed up for some tough negotiating by dictating a letter firmly rebuffing the attempts to renegotiate a bigger deal by another client, the then U.S. Senator from New York, Aaron Burr (later Thomas Jefferson’s vice president). See H.D. to Aaron Burr, 9 November 1798, Box 21, D.C., HSP.

[10] H.D. to J.B., Jr., 9 November 1798, Box 21, D.C., HSP

The Timeline of Jacobs Life and the Lives of His Children

Jacob Brumbaugh Chronology

1726—February 8: Johann Jakob Brombach born, Osthelden, Siegen, Westphalia, Germany. Baptized at the Evangelical church in Ferndorf. 

1750—August 31: Ship Nancy from Rotterdam via Cowes, Master Thomas Coattam, docks in Philadelphia carrying Johann Jakob Brombach and 87 other German passengers who sign a list (only known signature of JJB that survives) acknowledging their allegiance to the King of England.

1753 – Sept. 23: Jacob purchases Clalands Contrivance, a ninety-acre tract in Frederick County (later Washington Co.), Maryland, from Conrad Hogmire for £64. 

1754—Jacob purchases tract of one hundred acres called Ill Will (same area).

1755—Jacob purchases tract of fifty acres called Bromback’s Lott (same area)- total 240 acres. 

c1757—Jacob marries Mary Elizabeth Angle, daughter of Henrich Engle.

1757-58—Jacob participates as a scout in Capt. Jonathan Hager’s company of Md. militia; he also quarters six soldiers for six days during the French & Indian War.

c1758 – son Jacob, Jr. born.

c1759—daughter Mary Elizabeth born.

c1760—son John born.

1763—Jacob acquires 420 acres of vacant land contiguous to Clalands Contrivance; same year he acquires Timber Bottom (260 acres) and Chance (23 acres). This brings his total landholdings to high water mark of 798 acres. Ten years after his first purchase he owned almost ten times as much land as he first held.

1772—son Daniel is born.

1773—on a plot of land in then Cumberland Co. (later Bedford County), Pennsylvania, an improvement is first built on land (in 1785 Conrad Brumbaugh in John Brumbaugh’s application for warrant affirmed that said improvement on Jacob’s son John’s land was built about 1773 “and not before”).

1775—January: Jacob shows up in Bedford Co. land office to apply for warrants on two land tracts later sold (only tracts he ever sold) to Martin Houser; no further recorded visits by Jacob to that county for ten years; all county histories report that Indian depredations during the Revolution kept settlers away for those ten years.

1776—March 11: Jacob acquires warrant on 280 acres called Albania in Bedford Co., Pa. 

March 17: son David is born.

March 23: Jacob contributes two blankets to Committee of Observation of Elizabeth town (later renamed Hagerstown). 

May 7: upon questioning as to why he does not enroll in militia, Jacob tells Committee of Observation that he is over 50 years old, thus establishing that he was exempt from the military draft for men age 16 to age 50; sons Jacob Jr. and John each pay 3 pounds in non-enroller fines after they and 113 other men are summoned for May 7th hearing to answer as to why they 

Sept.: their portion of Frederick County is sliced off and named Washington County for a Virginia planter who has become the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.

            December 22: sons Jacob Jr. and John each pay the Committee of Observation of Elizabeth town a £3 fine as non-enrollers in the militia.

1777- Early March: son Henry born; Committee of Observation dissolves and new state government installed under the Maryland Constitution of 1776.

1778—March 1: by law of Md., before this date all men must swear or affirm their allegiance to the new government of the state of Maryland (the “test” oath); if refused, penalty of the triple tax for life and loss of civil rights; Brethren and Mennonites and others petition for relief as they cannot even affirm the new oath as it may commit them against their principles to militia service, even though the penalties include fines and loss of civil rights. Brethren do not take the oath. 

1780—March 8: Jacob sells six bushels of wheat and four bushels of rye to Dr. Henry Schnebely, acting as Washington County purchasing agent for the state of Maryland under Army Quartermaster; daughter Mary Elizabeth marries Elder Samuel Ulrich/Ulery.

1783—Jacob is assessed taxes on his 431-acre Clalands Contrivance in Salisbury Hundred of Washington County; last of his 7 children, son George, born

1785—March 2: Jacob and son John show up at the land office in Bedford County, Pennsylvania to apply for a warrant on some land; same day as Conrad Brumbaugh.

1786—Jacob shown as a “non-residentor” in Woodberry Township, Bedford County’s tax assessments.

1790—First federal census: Jacob is a “head of household” in Washington County, Md. 

1794—culmination of Whiskey Rebellion: Jacob’s name is not on the list of 116 men who were called to appear in Bedford County court in December that year to answer for whether they paid their federal tax on whiskey distillers.

1799—April 10: Jacob dies in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. His body is brought back to Clalands Contrivance in Md. to be buried in the family cemetery plot in the middle of the cornfield. 

            April 11: “duos for father” per Henry’s manuscript daybook. 

            June 9, 10: Public Vendue (auction) of Jacob’s personal property.

1800 – in second federal census widow Mary Brumbaugh is shown as doing something Jacob never did: owning a slave; sons own slaves as well: Daniel – 3; David – 2; and Henry – 5.

1803—April 2: Mary Elizabeth and Jacob, Jr. as administrators of Jacob’s intestate estate, petition the court for appointment of a commission to decide if the Md. real estate owned by Jacob “might admit of being divided without injury or loss to all the parties entitled, and to ascertain the value of such Estate in Current money according to law.”

June 18: widow Mary Elizabeth releases her dower interest in all Jacob’s real estate for consideration of £35 per year to be paid to her by the 7 heirs.

August 23: Jacob, Jr. breakfasts with Henry & Elizabeth Drinker at their home in Philadelphia and pays Henry the final balance on Dorfans Barn. This gives this land tract to the estate as Jacob Sr. had originally contemplated when Jacob Sr. signed an agreement in 1797. 

Feb. 5: Pa. conveys patent to Jacob and son Daniel on Good Intent 407 acres on Piney Creek in Morrison’s Cove, Bedford County, Pennsylvania.

            Amicable settlement of Jacob’s Maryland estate.

1806—Nov. 28: Mary Elizabeth Brumbaugh dies, according to Henry Brumbaugh daybook.

1807—amicable settlement of Jacob’s Pennsylvania estate with conveyances of deeds to various tracts there and monetary consideration passing back and forth among the seven siblings in several separate, but coordinated, legal transactions (one land tract Springfield farm is not settled until 20 years later). 

Subsequent Deaths of Jacob’s and Mary Elizabeth’s Seven Children and Spouses:

1814—Jacob Jr. dies in Washington County at 56.

1820—Jacob Jr.’s widow, Catharine, dies.

1822—Elder Samuel Ulery, young Mary Elizabeth’s husband, dies Bedford Co.

1824—Daniel dies in Washington County at 52.

1828—Mary Elizabeth Ulery dies after this year in Bedford County at 69.

1829—John dies in Bedford County at 61.

1837—George dies in Washington County at 53.

1840—George’s widow, Mary Louisa dies in Washington County.

1842—David dies in Franklin Co., Pennsylvania at 66.

1845—David’s widow, Eve, dies in Franklin County. 

1849—Henry’s widow, Margaretha, dies in Washington County.

1854—Henry dies in Washington County at 77.

1860—Daniel’s widow, Elizabeth, dies in Washington County.

Donoghue Gave Annual Meeting Address in October at Conococheague Institute & Museum near Mercersburg, PA

Ned Donoghue spoke about his research on Johann Jacob Brumbaugh, the Dunker farmer in Hagerstown who was among the Dunkers and Mennonites of that area who refused to bear arms during the American Revolution. The audience was an

The crowd in CI's charming and authentic frontier log house that serves as their Visitors' Center.  Many thanks to Executive Director Heather Wade for the early invitation to speak.

The crowd in CI’s charming and authentic frontier log house that serves as their Visitors’ Center. Many thanks to Executive Director Heather Wade for the early invitation to speak.

SRO crowd of over 40 people in CI’s charming and authentic frontier log house Visitors’ Center.

Update, September 2013: A Revolutionary Peace

The manuscript, tentatively entitled A Revolutionary Peace: Conscientious Objection During the Birth of a Nation has been completed and is being submitted to potential publishers. It is about 133,000 words, over 315 pages, and has 600 notes for citations to sources and discussions for further reading. It contains an extensive bibliography, a chronology of its main protagonists, a cast of characters and place names, and maps. It will also have illustrations of various kinds including primary source documents.

Excerpt from a 1770 piece by Morgan Edwards in History of the American Baptists

Excerpt from a 1770 book by Morgan Edwards in History of the American Baptists

Morrison’s Cove community website (Bedford Co., PA)

http://www.morrisonscove.net

The above is an excellent website for the community in Bedford County, Pennsylvania, where many Brumbaughs have lived since the 1780s– including Jacob’s second son John and Jacob’s only daughter, Mary Elizabeth Brumbaugh Ulery (wife of Brethren Elder Samuel Ulery a/k/a Ulrich, whose father and brothers also settled there). Many Brumbaughs still live there today. There is also a Brumbaugh Mountain and a Brumbaugh road in the southern end of the Cove, and a Brumbaugh cemetery in the northern end. The image below is of a survey from 1786 of one of Jacob Brumbaugh Sr.’s land tracts in New Enterprise where John and the Ulerys also settled. When the book is published, you will be able to learn what hazards Jacob had to overcome to buy the land but at the same time avoid being sucked into the cesspool of land speculation schemes and personal bankruptcies of the land speculators, particularly Samuel Wallis, that followed the bursting of the land bubble in 1796. Hint: a noted pacifist martyr in Philadelphia helped him, although the correspondence detailing their bumpy negotiations over price and other terms will leave you laughing as these two old men, pacifists from different worlds, locked horns!

BRUMBedCoBook P pg 448 - Version 2

Jacob bought three land tracts from Quaker merchant prince and pacifist Henry Drinker

Only after 2 years of research did I find that there was archived correspondence between Quaker merchant Henry Drinker and Jacob Brumbaugh and later his son Jacob, Jr. Henry had been one of twenty Philadelphia Quakers exiled to Virginia by Philadelphia authorities shortly before British Gen. William Howe arrived to occupy Philadelphia for the winter of 1777-78. Jacob first bought a land tract from Henry in 1785, then signed an agreement for another one in the early 1790s and one also in 1797, which was not completed until 1803 after Jacob Sr. had died in 1799. Jacob Jr. personally brought the last installment to Drinker’s home and breakfasted with the Drinkers in August 1803. Drinker’s wife Elizabeth Sandwith Drinker recorded that fact in her 50-year diary which is the most complete contemporary record of manners of eighteenth-century Philadelphia and is  lodged at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Henry Drinker

Morrison’s Cove and Jacob Brumbaugh

Jacob purchased nearly a dozen land tracts in Morrison’s Cove, Bedford County, Pennsylvania, between 1785 and his death in 1799. Morrison’s Cove is a lush green valley between ridges of the Alleghenies which is still today largely agricultural as it was back in the late 18th century. There were many German sectarian groups there then and there still are now, along with a Brumbaugh Mountain, Brumbaugh Road, and Brumbaugh cemetery. Image

What was the second language of Pennsylvania in the 1770s? Who were “Palatines” back then?

This gallery contains 1 photo.

German was the second language. About 1/3rd of those inhabiting the Pennsylvania colony before the Revolution were German immigrants. About 100,000 of them arrived over the course of the 18th century, and as they did it was announced in the newspaper, The Pennsylvania Gazette, that more Palatines were due to arrive on the next few […]